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MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS WORKFLOW


What is molecular testing used for?

In medicine, it is a laboratory test that checks for certain genes, proteins, or other molecules in a sample of tissue, blood, or other body fluid. With regard to infectious diseases, for example, molecular diagnostics has major advantages over the sole use of serology.
Molecular tests also check for certain changes in a gene or chromosome that may cause or affect the chance of developing a specific disease or disorder, such as cancer. Molecular diagnostics is a more sensitive method allowing detection of lower amounts of infectious agents and therefore giving the ability to detect infections earlier than was previously possible. This ability is especially significant in blood screening.
Molecular diagnostics is a collection of techniques used to analyse biological markers in the genome and proteome—the individual's genetic code and how their cells express their genes as proteins—by applying molecular biology to medical testing. The technique is used to diagnose and monitor disease, detect risk, and decide which therapies will work best for individual patients.[1][2](foreword)
 By analysing the specifics of the patient and their disease, molecular diagnostics offers the prospect of personalised medicine.[3]

The solutions offered by Analis will support you both in the molecular diagnostic workflows of viral and bacterial pathogens, but also with strong solutions to support your clinical research in oncology.
The first step is to collect, prepare, concentrate and sort the samples.
During the second step, the nucleic acid is isolated from the sample to be studied. No matter what downstream analysis is performed (RT-PCR or sequencing), without removing contaminants or inhibitors from the sample, a good quality analysis is not possible.
The third step is the configuration of the reaction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a fundamental technique in molecular biology due to its exceptional ability to amplify and precisely quantify extremely low levels of nucleic acids. Many steps can be automated with ready-to-use kits and automated liquid handlers. Time, repeatability, and precise microvolume handling are all part of this game.
Finally, during the 4th step, the analysis of the prepared nucleic acid can be carried out. Nucleic acid detection techniques are currently based on fluorescence, colorimetry or chemiluminescence. As an example, you can use: capillary electrophoresis systems, gel imagers, real-time PCR instruments or other nucleic acid analyzers.
Real-time PCR thermal cyclers / thermal cyclers perform quantitative PCR (qPCR) for experiments in gene expression, genetic variation, genotyping and specific detection of rare targets, bacteria and viruses.
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized genomic research over the past decade. The preparation of NGS samples, however, is a tedious and laborious process. Automation of library construction overcomes this drawback and minimizes hands-on time.
At all stages of the process, lab functionalities such as: instrument communication, automated result validation, quality control, on line consultation of results in real time and even more are critical to, for example, meet quality requirements in pre-analysis and allow decentralized encoding in sampling centers, thereby reducing the burden of pre-analytical errors. Efficient Clinical Informations Management Tools are then highly recommended.
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